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盘点 | 《柯林斯词典》公布2020年十大热词,“封锁”“吃播”上榜
信息来源:语言服务 微信公众号  发布时间:2020-11-16  浏览次数:347  [ 关闭 ]


临近年末,各类盘点相继出炉。近日,《柯林斯词典》率先公布了2020年度词汇:封锁(Lockdown)

在官方网站上,《柯林斯词典》写道:

封锁,这一新冠疫情期间全球各地政府为了防止疫情蔓延采取的限制性措施,被提名为2020年度词。而在今年的年度十大词汇中,也有其他疫情相关的词汇入选。词典编辑选择封锁,也是因为数十亿人经历了这个过程,大家都参与到了对抗新冠的战疫中。2020年,柯林斯记录了封锁一词的使用次数超过25万,而去年这项数据仅为4000

‘Lockdown’, the containment measure implemented by governments around the world to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, has been named the Collins Word of the Year 2020. Several other words related to the pandemic are included in Collins’ longer list of ten words of the year, which you can see below. Our lexicographers chose ‘lockdown’ as Word of the Year because it is a unifying experience for billions of people across the world, who have had, collectively, to play their part in combating the spread of COVID-19. Collins registered over a quarter of a million usages of ‘lockdown’ during 2020, against only 4,000 the previous year.

Lockdown

名词,表示针对旅行、社交以及进入公共场所等实施严格限制。

The imposition of stringent restrictions on travel, social interaction, and access to public spaces.

1030日,在法国尼斯,街道上的餐馆关门歇业。为遏制新冠疫情蔓延,法国从30日起再度全国封城。新华社发 塞尔日阿乌齐摄 图源:新华网

《柯林斯词典》的语言内容顾问海伦纽斯特德接受《卫报》采访时表示,语言反映了我们周边的世界,2020年是被全球疫情主宰的一年。我们选择封锁作为今年的年度词汇,因为它概括了数十亿人被迫限制日常生活以防控病毒蔓延的共同经历。封锁影响了我们工作、学习、购物和社交的方式。如今许多国家都进入了第二轮封锁,这不是一个值得庆贺的年度词汇,但也许这个词能概括世界上大多数人的这一年。

“Language is a reflection of the world around us and 2020 has been dominated by the global pandemic,” says Collins language content consultant Helen Newstead. “We have chosen lockdown as our word of the year because it encapsulates the shared experience of billions of people who have had to restrict their daily lives in order to contain the virus. Lockdown has affected the way we work, study, shop, and socialise. With many countries entering a second lockdown, it is not a word of the year to celebrate but it is, perhaps, one that sums up the year for most of the world.”

BBC:新冠:封锁被宣布为《柯林斯词典》年度词汇


BBC报道指出,2020年初,当面对新冠疫情传播时,采取严格的防疫措施成为全球各地政府的常规操作。而在十大词汇中与疫情不相关的那些,则反映出2020年的社会和政治变动。

It came into common parlance as governments around the world responded to the spread of Covid-19 in early 2020 by placing strict measure to stop transmission of the virus. Non-virus related words to make the list reflect the social and political upheavals of 2020.

除了Lockdown,十大年度词汇还包括以下这些:

Coronavirus

冠状病毒,导致呼吸道感染疾病的病毒,其中包括新冠病毒。

Any one of a group of RNA-containing viruses that can cause infectious illnesses of the respiratory tract, including COVID-19.

112日,在法国南部小城昂蒂布,一名小学生佩戴口罩上课。新华社发 塞尔日·阿乌齐摄 图源:新华网

BLM

黑人的命也是命(Black Lives Matter的缩写),指反对种族暴力和压迫的运动。

A movement that campaigns against racially motivated violence and oppression.

5月,美国非裔男子弗洛伊德死亡在美国多地引发抗议活动。CNN报道,今年6月,华盛顿特区市长穆里尔鲍泽下令将白宫外16街的一个区域命名为Black Lives Matter Plaza,即黑人的命也是命广场

Key worker

关键岗位员工,对于社会运行起到至关重要作用的员工,比如教师、警察、医护工作者等。

An employee in any of a number of professions considered to be essential to the functioning of society, for example teachers, police officers, health workers, etc.

这是57日,在西班牙巴塞罗那的一家医院,一名新冠患者在离开重症监护室前和医护人员握手致意。新华社发 弗朗西斯科·阿维亚摄 图源:新华网

Furlough

强制休假,暂时性解雇员工,通常原因是现在的工作并不需要这么多人。

A temporary laying-off of employees, usually because there is insufficient work to occupy them.

CNN曾报道今年夏天,美国移民部门计划让超过半数的员工强制休假

Self-isolate

自我隔离,在确诊或疑似患传染性疾病时将自己隔离。

To quarantine oneself if one has or suspects one has a contagious disease.

英国首相鲍里斯约翰逊在感染新冠期间发推表示进行了自我隔离

Social distancing

社交距离,为了防止传染疾病,将自己与他人之间保持一定的距离。

The practice of maintaining a certain distance between oneself and other people in order to prevent infection with a disease.

这是48日在英国伦敦一家超市门外拍摄的提醒人们保持安全距离的参照物。新华社发 蒂姆爱尔兰摄 图源:新华网

Megxit

梅退,指的是哈里王子和梅根退出王室职责的事件。

The withdrawal of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex from royal duties, announced in January 2020.

当时各大外媒纷纷报道这一事件:

TikToker

抖音爱好者,经常分享或出现在抖音视频的人。

A person who regularly shares or appears in videos on TikTok.

图源:人民视觉

Mukbang

吃播,为取悦观众,主播大量进食的视频或网络直播。

A video or webcast in which the host eats a large quantity of food for the entertainment of viewers



综合来源:BBCThe Guardiancollinsdictionary.com,中国日报英语点津;


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